2015-03-19

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Analyzing Language and Emotion

LEE (Linguistic Expression of Emotions) 是 Emotion talks 在語言知識上的抽象整理

Drawing

How they function in different situations (causal conversation, news reports, classroom discourse, etc), and how they can be represented linguistically.

Recurring Issues in Emotion Research

妳的報告可以回答的問題

(Bednarek 2008) Drawing

Complexities between Emotion and Language

There has been no unified linguistic theory of affect or emotion yet. Indeed, we find a range of widely-differing approaches to the expression of emotion in general.

  • we can express feelings that we have;
  • we can express feelings that we do not have;
  • we have feelings that we do express;
  • we have feelings that we do not express

on top of that, the feelings may be expressed consciously or subconciously, intentionally or unintentionally, spontaneously or strategically, and each may relate to various aspests of the communicative contexts.

Linguistic Approaches

(Bednarek 2008): pp7-10

每個人講一個

  • cognitive
  • cross-linguistic
  • linguistic-anthropological
  • diachronic
  • functional
  • syntactic
  • conversation analytic
  • stylistic/literary
  • psycholinguistic
  • pragmatic

Language about/as Emotion

指稱與標誌

  • Language about emotion (emotional talk): linguistic expressions denoting (the speaker's and other's) emotions. [denoting effect]. e.g., I'm really angry!
  • Language as emotion (emotion talk): linguistic expressions as conventionalized reflexes or signals of speaker's emotions (whether intentional or not) [signaling effect]. e.g., Oh, Fuck!

More Examples of Emotion Talk

mental process verbs, grading (intensifiers, comparison, quantifiers, mood, modality, negation), repetition, interpersonal metaphor, figurativeness, punctuation, interjections, affective derivation (diminutives/argumentatives), inversion, exclamation, syntactic markedness, pronoun use, emphatic articles, intensifiers, expletives, vagueness, affectivev connotations, evaluative adjectives, and many more.)

Appraisal theory

  • Cognitive Appraisal Theory (Lazarus, 1970) 主張的是情緒的本質問題:每個情緒反應都是某種特定的認知或評價的作用結果;

  • The Appraisal framework is a theory of the language of evaluation, developed within the tradition of systemic functional linguistics. (Martin and White 2003)
    • it aims to describe a taxonomy of the types of language used to convey evaluation and position oneself with respect to the evaluations of other people.

Appraisal framework consists of three subsystems that operate in parallel:

  • attitude looks at how one expresses private state (Quirk et al., 1985) (one's emotion, opinions, ethics and aesthetics, etc);

  • engagement (i.e., appraisals of appraisals) considers the positioning of oneself with respect to the opinions of others.

  • graduation (i.e., strength of evaluations) investigates how the use of language functions to amplify or diminish the attitude and engagement conveyed by a text. In attitude it enables authors to convey greater or lesser degrees of positivity or negativity, while graduation of engagements scales authors' conviction in their utterance.

(Martin and White 2003)

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Stance 立場又是什麼?

Similar to appraisal and can be defined as "the expression of personal feelings and assessments". - epistemic stance (certainty/doublt) - style stance (discourse comments) - attitudinal stance (positive/negative value judgement) : including both emotion vocabulary (happy), and evaluative expressions (wonderful, lovely). Something between affect, judgement and appreciation. More or less equivalent to attitude rather than affect.

Cognition Semantics and Emotions

  • Emotions can be understood metaphorically.
  • EMOTION IS FORCE (K övecses 2003), exemplified by expressions like:
    • He was seized by emotion.
    • He was struggling with his emotions.

Event structures of Emotions

Corpus-based Analysis

  • Corpus-based analysis can tell us about the details of linguistic variation.

語料庫沒有規定長什麼樣子

Lab.1 玩玩 Bookworm

Lab.2 語料庫分析練習

Choose an affective term (i.e., a lexical item that denotes emotion in broad sense), and conduct a preliminary corpus-based survey. You can start with focusing on its lexical, POS and syntactic variations.

Homework.1: Lab.2 分析結果

Reference

Bednarek, Monika. 2008. Emotion Talk Across Corpora. Palgrave Macmillan New York.

K övecses, Zolt án. 2003. Metaphor and Emotion: Language, Culture, and Body in Human Feeling. Cambridge University Press.

Martin, James R, and Peter R White. 2003. The Language of Evaluation. Palgrave Macmillan.